Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc. Falconbridge, Alexander. Munford 1991,, Clarence J. Legacies of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (Smallwood) United Nations Human Development Report (2010) Friday, Aug 5, 2011. The horrified slaves that were not yet restrained with shackles, realizing they would never see their country and kin again chose to jump overboard to certain death by either drowning or shark attack (Dow, 1968: 70, 74). There is a source question at the start encouraging pupils to interpret what the source implies about slavery. Interpretations of original documents. In a scramble, each slave is priced the same and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim. 1991. Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse (1973: 24, 25). Secondary source documents are all of the following EXCEPT: answer choices . 1. They endured the horrors of the Middle Passage, the journey by ship from West African slave trading ports to the New World during which an estimated two million captives died. It involved the unwilling separation of peoples from their home and family, forcing them into a mandatory deportation, reducing their status to that of mere human cargo, exposing them to a cramped disease filled environment, limiting them of basic life giving substance, subjecting them to wrenching sexual abuse and much more. History & Special Collections UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. New York: Simon & Schuster. Lesson Planet. A slave inflected with scurvy would have become weak with joint pain. According to Equiano, “The closeness of the place, and the heat of the climate, added to the number in the ship, which was so crowded that each had scarcely room to turn himself, almost suffocated us. These storage selves made it impossible for slaves to stand while stored, much less sit upright. The Slave Trade. August 1, 2017. Sometimes they would refuse to comply with his desires and would be severely beaten by him and sent below…there was one girl that he retained for some time as his favorite and kept her in his cabin” (Dow, 1968: 191). It designated the bottom line of a trading triangle, between the “outward passage” from Europe to Africa and the “homeward passage” from the Americas back to Europe. Slave ships and Slaving. The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. The Middle Passage Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. It is here that they endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were secured like beast with chains. Source 7: Election Handbill. Upon being brought aboard the slave ship, the male slaves were shackled together in pairs with handcuffs and leg irons. The food was then shoved down their throats through a funnel (Thomas, 1997: 420). After an examination of this material, it is apparent that the cruel treatment of the slaves coupled with the inhuman conditions aboard the slavers resulted in high mortality rates while causing the survivors to emerge physically weak as well as mentally terrified. Northbrook, Ill: Metro books, Inc. Equiano, Olaudah. Original materials. Next, their gums would hemorrhage while the tissue became weak and spongy. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. Source: David Eltis and David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (New Haven, 2010). Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow. This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. Known as the "middle passage," this sea voyage could range from one to six months, depending on the weather. Map reproduced by permission of Yale University Press. Hill, Pascoe Grenfell. Falconbridge reported that, “The confined air, rendered noxious by effluvia exhaled from their bodies, and by being repeatedly breathed, soon produces fevers and fluxes, which generally carries off great numbers of them” (1973: 24). By this means fifty or sixty, and four times more, are fastened to one chain, in order to prevent them from rising, or endeavoring to escape. Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Like this: Like Loading... Post navigation. 83, No. Thus, the formerly free Africans who survived the cruel and inhuman process known as The Middle Passage began a lifetime of servitude in the Americas. On large ships, several hundred slaves could be packed below decks. Their lack of clothing caused a lowering of physical resistance. The enslaved, naked Africans were then herded onto the slave ships under the inspiration of the whip. alternatives . Their irons being examined, a long chain, which is locked to a ring-bolt, fixed in the deck, is run through the rings of the shackles of the men, and then locked to another ring-bolt, fixed also in the deck. As you listen to this first-person narrative and review the supporting primary sources, think about how learning the story of this man who served as the cargo superintendent (or supercargo) on a slave ship might build a better understanding of the American slave trade in the 18th century Source 10: Cruikshank's cartoon . Slaves were fed twice a day—at eight in the morning and at four in the afternoon. Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave trade and the Making of the Americas. If the slaves danced reluctantly, or the least bit sloppy, they were whipped for inspiration (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Slaves that were not stored next to these buckets had trouble reaching them. I hope it was interesting for you. the “middle passage” is an old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade. It seemed at times as if their arms would by pulled out of joint or their jaws cracked by some of the Dutch boors. The Black Ordeal of Slavery and Slave Trading in the French West Indies 1625-1715. | Historians estimate that approximately 472,000 Africans were kidnapped and brought to the North American mainland between 1619 and 1860. Hill recounts, “The great physical suffering of all seems to be a raging, unquenchable thirst” (1993: 30). Source 8: A slave revolt. The leg irons, handcuffs and the restricted space made it painful and difficult for slaves to turn or move while stored in the hold (Equiano, 1999: 33). New York : Barnes & Noble Inc. Conneau, Theophilus Captain. Your email address will not be published. The nightmare for the slaves got worse in periods of stormy weather. Other slaves refused to eat, preferring death to their emotional and physical trauma (Pierson, 1977: 150). Equiano recalls, “There was much dread and trembling among us, and nothing but bitter cries to be heard all the night from these apprehensions…The white people got some old slaves from the land to pacify us. Slaves were treated so badly on the slave ships that about 15% of them died during the Middle Passage. And he assured me that it was a common incident among his countrymen” (Falconbridge, 1973: 14). The slave trade was a vast system involving many types of people. It is no wonder that some slaves went “raving mad, and screech like wild beast” (Drake, 1972: 50). One day in 1924, five men who were camping in the Cascade Mountains of Washington saw a group of huge apelike creatures coming out of the woods. Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. Conditions inside the holds were inhuman. The main tasks are to answer source questions and there is level criteria provided. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Drake, Rich’D. With each meal, they were given one cup of water. Horse beans were the cheapest food you could get in Europe at the time. The bulk of the material used to explore this topic comes from the holdings of the M.D. Back to Historical Sources; Back to top. Upon reaching the coast, the survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Are these primary or secondary sources? The women may not have had to suffer in irons but they were subject to other evil-minded and unsparing treatments. The material used for this research includes first-hand accounts (Captain Logs, seamen diaries, and slave narratives) as well as other appropriate secondary sources. Source 1: Committee Minutes. Upon a given signal, or time, the purchasers would race into the holding pin and grab or lay claim to the best and healthiest. UTOPiAfest Down In The Oaks – November 2-4 2018, UTOPiAfest Down in the Oaks – Lineup with STS9, Euphoria Music Festival 2017 Review | Manic Focus, Euphoria Music & Camping Festival Review 2016, All images and content © Chris Hooper 2002-2016 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - hooper@aoxoa.co. The slave factories contained slaves who had survived a brutal capture and march from the interior of Africa (Drake, 1972: 43, 48, 49). Dysentery, one of the common diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. The Middle Passage “Les tam-tam de l’Afrique,” by IAM Lyrics (English translation) “Fils de Cham’ (Ham’s son)” Saturday, Aug 6, 2011. During that time, it is estimated that 11-13 million slaves survived The Middle Passage to the Americas, while many others died in transit (Palmer, 2002: 53). The transatlantic slave trade began around 1518 and ended sometime after the 1870’s. Equiano states that, “The noise and clamor with which this is attended, and the eagerness visible in the countenances of the buyers, serve not a little to increase the apprehension of the terrified Africans” (1999: 35, 36). “These filled me with astonishment, that was soon converted into terror, which I am yet at a loss to describe…I was immediately handed and tossed up to see if I was sound by some of the crew, and I was persuaded that I had got into a world of bad spirits, and that they were going to kill me…when I looked round the ship too, and saw a large furnace or copper boiling and multitude of black people, of every description, chained together, everyone of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate; and, quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted” (Equiano, 1999: 31). The result was that slaves would be forced to relieve themselves as they lay there (Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21). Anderson Library located at the University of Houston’s main campus. 1993. According to Falconbridge, “Most of the slaves have such an aversion to the horse beans, that unless they are narrowly watched, when fed upon deck, they will throw them overboard or in each others faces when they quarrel” (1973: 22). Chills were common from the temperature change going from deck to steamy hold. Equiano states that, “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a salutation in my nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: So that, with the loathsomeness of stench, and with my crying together, I became so sick and low that I was not able to eat, nor had I the least desire to taste anything” (1999: 32). JMR. Huskey, Robert J. Secondary Sources. The cold-blooded state of affairs and the brutal process of The Middle Passage began on the coast of West Africa where enslaved Africans were held prisoners by their African captors. While they were in, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the cabin. Source 2: Campaign Medallion. ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? ( Log Out /  National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. Home » Cultural / History » The Middle Passage | Atlantic Slave Trade. Q. Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. Materials. One dame was not satisfied until she forced a wench to screech by squeezing her breast cruelly” (Drake, 1972: 45). He enjoys the great outdoors with his lovely wife and amazing son. Next come the lesions which ulcerate soon after formation” (Razi, 2000). Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. The American Yawp, Joseph Locke and Ben Wright, eds., last modified Introduction to Primary and Secondary Sources for Elementary and Middle School Students Objectives: This is a skill-based lesson that is intended to introduce a wide range of students to the world of primary sources and how to work and think critically like a historian. This produced copious perspiration, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells and brought on a sickness among the slaves of which many died” (1999: 33). These openings were only six inches by four inches, hardly enough to allow proper ventilation (Falconbridge, 1973: 24). Pierson, William D. 1977. Source 10 - Cruikshank's cartoon . Source 6: Diagram of a slave ship. Circle the correct answer. Captain Rich’d Drake, an African slave trader for fifty years, described how the blacks were examined head to foot, having their joints and muscles squeezed, their arms and legs twisted, their breast and groins pinched without mercy. 2002. Th… The darkies were obliged to go through every sort of motion. This paper gives the reader an idea about the cruel methods and inhuman conditions of The Middle Passage that left many enslaved Africans dead and caused many more to emerge physically weak and mentally terrified. Beacon Press, 2005. Sources created later by someone who did not participate in the event. A negroe in the West-Indies informed me that after having been employed in kidnapping others, he had experienced this reverse. Of these, nearly 18 percent died during the transatlantic voyage from Africa to the New World. For the women, already having been preyed upon during the voyage, the fear must have run much deeper. A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. Bailey, Anne C. African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame. As to be expected, most of their songs were filled with the sorrow and despair of being torn from their country and kin. A biography of Theodore Roosevelt written in 2001 Primary Secondary 2. Source 4: A Negro's Complaint. 1999. Most of the time, slaves that needed to reach the tubs were prevented from doing so. The hold could become full of shit, blood and mucus (Falconbridge, 1973: 25). Download, reproduce, distribute, and enjoy a warm beverage while students dive into the Middle Passage. They contain a mix of written and picture sources. Slaves that were weak, but not deathly sick, were fed and cleaned before being marched to the merchants’ yard to await the grim treatment of the auction (Thomas, 1997: 432). More than 12.5 million people were taken from Africa in the four centuries of the Atlantic slave trade. William Bosman, another seaman involved in the African slave trade, remarks that he saw no sharks in the coastal waters of Africa’s gold coast except at the main outlets where slaves were dispatched to the Americas. Buying and enslaving the people who supplied this labor ultimately became a lucrative and tragic part of the commerce in the maritime web that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Between meals, and sometimes at night, the slaves were forced to dance and sing as a form of cruel exercise or sadistic entertainment. He survived the many horrors of the Middle Passage to write an autobiography and become a leader in the movement to end slavery “Generally when the grown people in the neighbourhood were gone far in the fields to labour, the children assembled together in … Upon going below deck during a storm to check on the slaves he says, “I was so overcome with the heat, stench and foul air that I had nearly fainted, and it was not without assistance, that I could get upon deck” (1973: 25). Regardless of how they became slaves, they were housed in these merciless factories until the slave ships arrived. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. Terrified Africans died and became feeble from a variety of diseases that were aggravated by the ruthless methods of their captors and the bestial conditions they suffered on board the ship. Cohn, Raymond L. "Deaths of Slaves in the Middle Passage" The Journal of Economic History (Sep., 1985): 685-692. … Primary Source: a record made by people who saw or took part in an event (originates from the past) Secondary Source: a record of an event written by someone not there at the time **Key question: Is this a primary/secondary source? Some slaves lost the desire to eat as Equiano explained that the loathsome, intolerable stench from the hold made him become “so sick and low” that he was not able to eat, nor did he have the least desire to taste anything (1999: 32). Slave narratives are rare, but one such slave account by Olaudah Equiano describes seeing and boarding a slave ship for the first time. Equiano eventually purchased his freedom and lived in London where he advocated for abolition. There have even been reports of a captain who poured melted lead onto slaves who refused to eat (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. “The men could only jump up and rattle their chains” (Dow, 1968: 195). The Atlantic slave trade was the largest fo… This article will briefly outline the major phases of The Middle Passage and describe some of the treatments and conditions the enslaved Africans experienced. This is part 1 of a lesson learning about the middle passage. It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. 1973. Many of these slaves were prisoners of war from native conflicts/slave hunting (Conneau, 1976: 104). Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. Jan 23, 2019 - primary-source-middle-passage-19659-article_only “It was his general practice on the receipt of a women slave—especially a young one—to send for her to come to his cabin so that he might lie with her. White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Journal of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April. This resource is designed for UK teachers. The Middle Passage was the middle stop of the "triangular trade": European ships would first sail to the western coast of Africa to trade a variety of goods for people who had been captured in war, kidnapped, or sentenced to enslavement as punishment for a crime; they would then transport enslaved people to the Americas and sell them in order to purchase sugar, rum, and other products; … The food was terrible and the worst was horse beans. One can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling. Secondary Resources. The Gullah People of the Sea Islands For Teachers 8th. 1976. In another account by James Arnold, a surgeon aboard Captain Joseph Williams ship the Ruby, describes his captain’s victimization of young female slaves. Usually, at the first sign of scabs a slave would be thrown overboard to be devoured by the sharks that seemed to follow slave ships “as if they smelt the sickness” (Drake, 1972: 49). There is evidence that Equiano may have been born in South Carolina and not Africa. Many slaves displayed symptoms of pneumonia (Munford, 1991: 308, 309). 1968. Then, their teeth would loosen and eating would have become difficult and painful (Huskey, 1998). This cruel treatment, if not encouraging death, undoubtedly helped to physically weaken and mentally terrify the slaves. They were boiled into a pulp served with a pepper laced “slabber-sauce”. Black classic press. These are two sheets of sources used in a Y8 slavery lesson. Bosman, William. He goes on to state that the sharks will follow the slave ships across the Atlantic, waiting to feed on any slaves that enter the water (Bosman, 1967: 281, 282). “The women, in particular, clang to each other in agonies fiercely to be conceived, shrieking through excess of terror, at the savage manner in which their brutal purchasers rushed upon and seized them” (Falconbridge, 1973: 35). Inflicted slaves had little choice but to lay in their own filth, and those stored on the bottom of the hold were subject to the mess flowing between the spaces in the upper planks (Munford, 1991: 308). Photographs of Civil War soldiers in their camp Primary Secondary 3. Letters written by Abraham … “Estimates of mortality during The Middle Passage vary, but the available evidence suggests that about 40 percent of each cargo died during the sixteenth century, 15 percent during the seventeenth, and between 5 and 10 percent in later years” (Palmer, 2002: 54). In each partitioned off apartment within the hold, there were three or four tubs roughly two feet by two feet that were to be used as latrines. The life of Olaudah Equiano. An analysis of primary sources or events. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … “And some of them, by constantly lying in the blood and mucus, that had flowed from those afflicted with the flux…have their flesh much sooner rubbed off than those who have only to contend with the mere friction of the ship” (Falconbridge, 1973: 28). Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. In this lesson, students will use primary sources from the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African American History and Culture to better understand the history of slavery in the United States. Some of the excrement and urine would seep through the spaces between the plank boards, splattering on those who were unfortunate enough to be directly under the relieving slave (Munford, 1991: 308). The platforms were “Placed nearly midway between the decks, at the distance of two or three feet from each deck” (Falconbridge, 1973: 20). 1972. Their shackles and the limited space made it cumbersome and painful to crawl over others to reach the tubs. Smallpox: Inoculation, Vaccination, Eradication. The Middle Passage: Voyage into Bondage. Test your knowledge out. 1998. Therefore, slaves were not getting the balanced nutrition they needed and they became unhealthy, weak and even more susceptible to diseases. Upon the site of land, the weakened, traumatized slaves were no longer restricted to their limited rations of food and water, if there was no shortage (Falconbridge, 1973: 23). Known as the "middle passage," this … “Flux is similarly defined as an abnormally copious flowing of blood and excrement from the bowels or other organs; a morbid or excessive discharge” (JMR). Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in It had nine separate appendages of log line, each with several knots (Falconbridge, 1973: 40). Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. He goes on to say that, “It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold. From the early days of the American colonies, forced labor and slavery grew to become a central part of colonial economic and labor systems. Scurvy was another common disease suffered by the slaves during The Middle Passage. 2000. In times of good weather, the slaves were brought up from the hold onto the main deck. Smallpox was yet another common disease that, like the rest, was exacerbated by the cruel and inhuman experiences, which killed many Africans and caused many more to become physically pathetic and emotionally terrified. These purchasers tried to revive the sick to a condition where they could be used or resold at a profit. 3, Summer 1998 PR PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s). The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. Determined to get the best, arguments and fights would break out between the competitive purchasers (Falconbridge, 1973: 34). Pliny's dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 and a statement by his nephew that he died in his 56th year, which would put his birth in AD 23 or 24.. Pliny was the son of an equestrian Gaius Plinius Celer and his wife Marcella. Others, he specializes in music, lifestyle, concert, and enjoy a warm while... An old maritime phrase, dating to the heyday of the Atlantic slave trade began around and... Start encouraging pupils to interpret what the source implies about slavery and critical! Biomedical Library these purchasers tried to revive the sick to a meal, hundred. And unsparing treatments chris `` AoxoA '' Hooper is a compelling and well-written source which describes the Passage! 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