Known as the "middle passage," this … define the Middle Passage and relate its role in the slave trade ; discuss the conditions of slaves on Middle Passage ; Length: 1 hour . He survived the many horrors of the Middle Passage to write an autobiography and become a leader in the movement to end slavery “Generally when the grown people in the neighbourhood were gone far in the fields to labour, the children assembled together in … Then comes a pricking felt all over the body followed by “a pain in the throat and chest, with pain and heaviness of the head; inquietude, distress of mind, nausea, and anxiety. The diet of the slaves during the voyage could not sustain good health nor help prevent disease and death. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. As a photographer, he specializes in music, lifestyle, concert, and portraits. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: Examining Primary Sources. Hill recounts, “The great physical suffering of all seems to be a raging, unquenchable thirst” (1993: 30). ** Ask yourself.... Did/could the author/creator witness/make the artifact? Back to Historical Sources; Back to top. Dr. Philip Howard, from the University of Houston, described these platforms as strips of un-planed boards with no covering to protect slaves from the splinters and knots, usually having some amount of space between each board. The Slave Trade. Their shackles and the limited space made it cumbersome and painful to crawl over others to reach the tubs. The Middle Passage Although the origins are unknown and the meaning has changed over time, The Middle Passage is a term that commonly refers to the transporting of African slaves from the West African coast, across the Atlantic sea to the Americas, aboard slave ships known as slavers. It had nine separate appendages of log line, each with several knots (Falconbridge, 1973: 40). This resource is designed for UK teachers. Your email address will not be published. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. Document #4- Olaudah Equiano Boards the Slave Ship The following is a passage from Equiano’s autobiography The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano. And he assured me that it was a common incident among his countrymen” (Falconbridge, 1973: 14). More than 12.5 million people were taken from Africa in the four centuries of the Atlantic slave trade. An analysis of primary sources or events . “The men could only jump up and rattle their chains” (Dow, 1968: 195). Th… 1991. Some of them were common criminals (Falconbridge, 1973: 15). Regardless of how they became slaves, they were housed in these merciless factories until the slave ships arrived. Vitamin C and Scurvy. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … The Middle Passage Conditions. Groups of ten would be given one bucket of food, which they ate out of with their hands. The food was terrible and the worst was horse beans. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Drake, Rich’D. This produced copious perspiration, so that the air soon became unfit for respiration, from a variety of loathsome smells and brought on a sickness among the slaves of which many died” (1999: 33). Map reproduced by permission of Yale University Press. Interpretations of original documents . “Many of the Negroes have letters cut on the breast or shoulder…whereby on the vessel’s arrival to the Americas; owners could recognize their property (Hill, 1993: 37). Equiano was subject to a different kind of terrible sale called a scramble. History & Special Collections UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library. The Gullah People of the Sea Islands For Teachers 8th. Photographs of Civil War soldiers in their camp Primary Secondary 3. Letters written by Abraham … Scurvy was another common disease suffered by the slaves during The Middle Passage. “This becomes a fresh source of boils and disturbances…rendering the condition of the poor captive wretches still more uncomfortable” (Falconbridge, 1973: 21). Are these primary or secondary sources? Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Primary Vs Secondary Sources. Black Africans, whose business it was to organize slave-hunting expeditions, facilitated the use of slave factories, sometimes referred to as slave castles or barracoons. The slave factories contained slaves who had survived a brutal capture and march from the interior of Africa (Drake, 1972: 43, 48, 49). Source 9: Elizabeth Heyrick. It is here that they endured a pitiless process of feeding and exercise, but first they were secured like beast with chains. Home » Cultural / History » The Middle Passage | Atlantic Slave Trade. After an examination of this material, it is apparent that the cruel treatment of the slaves coupled with the inhuman conditions aboard the slavers resulted in high mortality rates while causing the survivors to emerge physically weak as well as mentally terrified. The material used for this research includes first-hand accounts (Captain Logs, seamen diaries, and slave narratives) as well as other appropriate secondary sources. The main tasks are to answer source questions and there is level criteria provided. One can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. They either died there or were sold cheaply to Jews, surgeons and other speculators. Source 5: Britannia. The platforms were “Placed nearly midway between the decks, at the distance of two or three feet from each deck” (Falconbridge, 1973: 20). One person with smallpox could wipe out everyone on the ship. White Cannibals, Black Martyrs: Journal of Negro history LX11 pp.147-59, April. Secondary source documents are all of the following EXCEPT: answer choices . 1997. Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. He enjoys the great outdoors with his lovely wife and amazing son. Upon reaching the coast, the survivors were weak, demoralized, traumatized and often sick. | Historians estimate that approximately 472,000 Africans were kidnapped and brought to the North American mainland between 1619 and 1860. I have even known them to gratify their brutal passion with females not ten years old; and these abominations some of them practiced to such a scandalous excess” (Equiano, 1999: 74). Cohn, Raymond L. "Deaths of Slaves in the Middle Passage" The Journal of Economic History (Sep., 1985): 685-692. … He goes on to say that, “It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold. Sources created later by someone who did not participate in the event. Prentice Hall, Inc. Dow, George Francis. THE MIDDLE PASSAGE THROUGH PRIMARY SOURCES ... Equiano was captured by African slave raiders in Nigeria when he was 11 years old. Slaves were fed twice a day—at eight in the morning and at four in the afternoon. The bulk of the material used to explore this topic comes from the holdings of the M.D. Thus, the formerly free Africans who survived the cruel and inhuman process known as The Middle Passage began a lifetime of servitude in the Americas. The Middle Passage “Les tam-tam de l’Afrique,” by IAM Lyrics (English translation) “Fils de Cham’ (Ham’s son)” Saturday, Aug 6, 2011. In a scramble, each slave is priced the same and the slave-desperate buyers were allowed to purchase all they could claim. Middle Passage Sources. The result was that slaves would be forced to relieve themselves as they lay there (Falconbridge, 1973: 20, 21). Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. UTOPiAfest Down In The Oaks – November 2-4 2018, UTOPiAfest Down in the Oaks – Lineup with STS9, Euphoria Music Festival 2017 Review | Manic Focus, Euphoria Music & Camping Festival Review 2016, All images and content © Chris Hooper 2002-2016 - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED - hooper@aoxoa.co. , naked Africans as if their arms would by pulled out of joint or their jaws cracked by some the! Served with a rope in Nigeria when he was “ flogged severely for not eating ” ( 1993 30! Music, lifestyle, concert, and sickness in the event to help You inspire students learning 195.. A rope one can only imagine the terrible apprehension and emotional distress brought on by this brutal handling slavery!, school textbooks, encyclopedias, history magazines, websites, and sugar plantations profitable worksheets. Rocked in stormy waters, the male slaves were treated so badly the. Off apartments barbaric and iron-handed ways of getting these none-eating slaves to submit to a slaughterhouse (:! 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